Accidental damage insurance is also important, so that your house is safe in the event of any unexpected problems. You can report a problem to us using the link below the report will be assigned to the correct authority and you can track the progress of the report online. Our gas safe heating engineers are trained to deal with any job, whether it is a noisy radiator or leaky valve, intermittent hot water or repairing your boiler, adding new radiators or trv’s (thermostatic radiator valves) or installing a new central heating system. Gofantastic is the first london app to instantly book any service for your home, garden and office from just one company. Our gas safe heating engineers are trained to deal with any job, whether it is a noisy radiator or leaky valve, intermittent hot water or repairing your boiler, adding new radiators or trv’s (thermostatic radiator valves) or installing a new central heating system. We offer many modern options, from our affordable 80+% efficiency models to high-efficiency boilers that offer the best comfort, along with low utility bills we can also assess your current heating zones, which allow you to customize the temperature in different rooms throughout your home for your boiler replacement, we also offer the option to install an indirect water heater that connects to your boiler our boiler consultants will work with you to find the best balance of economy and features that fit your needs. Boiler installation costs will really depend on the work involved if the new boiler is to be installed in the same place as your old boiler you could be looking at a cost of around £600 but installing it in a different location may be between £1500 and £1800. If you spot a flooded road, or blocked drains please report it we will need to know what the problem is, and where the problem is, for example 'outside 15 blank street' it is normal for standing water to be visible in the hole this does not indicate a blockage. If you are tired of waiting for a plumber to attend, who is unreliable, has not kept to the appointment time, or possibly can’t get to your location for a few days, then why not ring the reliable team from jim’s plumbing? we guarantee a same day plumbing service and will be on time, every time. Nearly every boiler manufacturer has a range of combi boilers in their portfolio simply because they are one of the most popular domestic boilers this article will focus on the following market leading brands, and compare price, warranties and reliability. As mentioned previously, it is always advisable to contact an expert, but in the case of wanting to do it your own, combi boiler installation procedures have been provided by the supplier that best fits your combi boiler model this can be found in the user guide or the installation manual accompanied with the boiler upon purchase. Source: careers directorate – tertiary education commission research, 2017. So pleased with services from start to finish. But the principle of prevention remains the best option a weekly tablespoon of bicarbonate of soda followed by a cup full of vinegar down a plughole can help to keep things clear as can a regular flush with boiling water and the "bag it and bin it" mantra of the water companies should be followed, too, with condoms, cotton wool and buds, cooking oil and fats, and all forms of sanitary protection such as tampons being wrapped, bottled or bagged and placed in dustbins instead of being flushed away. You'll probably save money if you pay for services and repairs as you go along, rather than take out a boiler servicing contract - where you pay a monthly fee that also covers repairs our analysis shows that for more than nine out of ten which? members this was more expensive than paying for one-offs which? members pay an average of £72 for a one-off boiler service. For over 50 years, az plumbing has been a leading provider of exceptional plumbing services in chandler, az our timely and quality plumbing services are provided by skilled and experienced plumbers we use only the latest, advanced plumbing equipment to provide the highest caliber of service to our clients whether you need residential plumbing or commercial plumbing services, we offer the affordable plumbing solutions you can rely on. Water, decyl glucoside, fragrance, phenoxyethanol, viable culture blend, benzisothiazolinone, sodium hydroxide, propylene glycol, glycerin. Called ricks plumbing service inc to fix a couple of issues mike came out, and was very professional, provided me with an estimate, and repaired my problems asap i was given a window, and mike was prompt, courteous, and got the job done quickly. We’ll aim to deliver these products within 7 working days, between 7am and 8pm we’ll let you know when your order will be delivered. We would recommend the survey to be carried out prior to exchange of contracts or asap to prevent the slow down of any sale if defects are found. A concept car by trumpchi from gac group is shown at the international automobile exhibition in guangzhou, china. We had a backed up main line and i was able to get an appt the same morning i called the men who came were so friendly and did an excellent fantastic thorough job and didn't quit till my pipe line was free of rocks, bumps and roots i recommend them to everyone thank u again guys!!!!!!! Worcester bosch manufacturer mid-range to premium combi boilers, so our comparison is centred around vaillant, baxi and ideal combi models in this price range. We can help you slash your fuel bills with an energy saving boiler, fully installed with a magnaclean filter, digital programmer and manufacturer's warranty. Alfaclear drains service london and its surrounding areas areas covered include the london boroughs of. Speak to your engineer about which additional energy-saving device is the best for you and your budget some of the energy-saving devices, such as flue gas heat recovery may already be included with the boiler you have chosen. Based in the farnham, aldershot area we travel to all premises within a 30 mile radius in order to provide you with an exceptional service we offer a very competitive service at realistic rates for today's market, whether it is for a small maintenance job or a larger installation of a boiler or bathroom suite. Hydro-jets force a powerful stream of water through your pipes the pressure that is created then forces the blockage through the pipes and out so that water can flow through once more this method is much safer for your pipes than snaking, although it is not as effective against solid blockages although you can attempt hydro-jetting on your own, it is likely better to leave this task to a professional plumber who will have the experience necessary to do the job properly. With over a century of experience, the baxi brand has strived to develop a strong reputation for manufacturing their boilers with quality and energy-efficiency in mind the brand has maintained a company ethos of pride, passion and positivity whilst also prioritising values of reliability and innovation these core principles influence every decision made by the company when it comes to the manufacturing of their products, as they seek to exceed customer needs and expectations with every boiler. Heating - plumbing - 24 hour emergency service call 01242 234576. Our team will come out and evaluate your home and recommend the best heating system for you. Your boiler should be serviced once a year by a registered gas safe engineer this will make sure that it continues to run smoothly and safely a service should include the cleaning and testing of your boiler, as well as the identification of any faults a proper boiler service should take about 30 minutes to complete. The name godby has been synonymous with service for decades in the indianapolis metro area godby has always been known for hvac (. Plans usually provide a 24-hour, 365-day helpline to call when you have an urgent heating or hot water problem they usually cover the cost of the call-out, repairs, parts and labour. May 2018 words of the day quiz. We believe you are only as good as you reputation and great reputation are hard won and easily lost! we really understand this so as you can see we let our reviews to the talking…. Know your rights - home appliances. All these methods are useful in unclogging drains, sinks, shower drains, and toilet drains rather than trying to figure out how to unclog a shower drain after the fact, however, it may save you time and effort to take steps to prevent drains from getting clogged in the first place how? Our boilers are built by the most reputable manufacturers in the industry, to the highest standards of quality and safety we are committed to exceeding our customer’s expectations every time on time quotes, on time delivery, on time service. A this is found on older boilers, which don’t switch off when an optimum house temperature is reached, but rather send the heat to an ‘overflow radiator’ this can waste a lot of energy, so can be a big incentive for a replacement boiler. Based on analysing all the gas condensing boilers available in the ranges of the biggest 11 manufacturers in the uk, which is more than 300 boilers in total, the difference in efficiency is minor. We offer a 7 year parts & labour guarantee on all new worcester bosch boilers we install you’ll probably save the installation fee by reduced gas bills over that time. Hotukdeals is a community for deal seekers find and share the best deals, promotional codes and vouchers from on and off the web. David and his company created a disability friendly shower room for us and refurbished the bathroom everyone who came to our home was professional, friendly and always punctual we are delighted with the result which was superb and we are very happy to recommend strysens if you want a good job, well done. This is the amount you pay if you make a claim the higher your excess, the cheaper your monthly premium. Rather than just going out and. Steve was communicative as well as jessica who set up the time of installation the overall price was slightly below other estimates for what we wanted jim who did the installation was a seasoned plumber with over 30 yrs exp he was courteous, on time, clean and answered all my questions and completed the job in about an hour overall, this experience was professional and no hassle i highly recommend plumbcrazy for quality and efficient work for your plumbing needs thank you to all who were involved with quel pilule prendre http://fr-ca.bestpillsforacne.eu this process! When your boiler breaks down in an emergency, you need a trustworthy team to get it up and running once again this is where 24 hour boiler repairs comes in we are open day and night and can have your boiler up and running within no time. If you want more information on how to order; book a service or repair for your product; register your warranty; or to call our uk based helpline, you've come to the right place just give us a call and see how our award-winning customer support team can help you. While there are some plumbing jobs you can diy, often the bigger jobs require professional help some major reasons to call a plumber include. Only use piping, sealants and solder suitable for potable water when working with water-using appliances. Year manufacturers’ warranty is only available on worcester bosch and ideal gas boilers at an additional cost of £199 all manufacturers warranties are subject to an annual service at the customer's expense. New boiler installation london. This policy is underwritten by aviva insurance limited which is authorised by the prudential regulation authority and regulated by the financial conduct authority and the prudential regulation authority aviva insurance limited is registered in scotland, company no 2116 and the registered address is pitheavlis, perth, ph2 0nh. A gas safe certified technician will come to do a survey. Householders are responsible for their private drains. An electric boiler is a large water tank with an inlet and outlet within that large tank is an array of electric heating elements electricity comes from the main power supply of your home and passes through those heating elements to warm up to very high temperatures when those electric elements are heated up, water passes over them and warms up as well when the water reaches a high enough temperature an electric pump moves the water from the boiler through the outlet to the rest of the house to run through. Find out how you can make sure you get a good boiler service plus we reveal the results of our undercover boiler engineers investigation. Larry mesiner award from associated builders and contractors of iowa for contractor of the year, steve kruck. Fantastic work polite and good clean up!”. Installed a water heater we got three estimates and felt like asap gave us the best value the company was professional in all aspects of the job. But while we need not necessarily shed a tear for the water company shareholders, the misuse - and, it has to be said, gross underinvestment - of our sewer network is causing considerable environmental concern for example, in 2004, a heavy august storm led to 600,000 tonnes of untreated sewage and storm runoff being forced into the thames these discharges, although rarely on this scale, now occur 50 to 60 times a year in the capital, with the environment agency saying climate change and continued underinvestment in the sewer network only exacerbate the problem for its part, thames water, london's water company, lists what it sees as being significant contributory factors to needless water pollution it says that up to one in 10 homes have misconnected drains (where the drain is mistakenly connected by a rogue or diy plumber to the rainwater drain instead of the main foul water drain) thames water also names its four leading culprits in the 80,000 blockages a year it has to clear - cooking fat, tree roots, children's toys and tampons. A fully-booked hotel suffered a boiler breakdown, meaning the hotel was left with no heating and hot water a replacement boiler was put on order, however, with many weeks’ lead time, a temporary temperature solution was needed. First time home buyers may not be understand that a survey will provide information which is extremely important about a drainage system. Ridgid water jetting machines are ideal for clearing grease, sewage or soap clogged lines. Which? trusted traders consumer. A system boiler works with a hot water storage cylinder but does not generally need a tank in the loft to fill the system. We're the only company to actually call back after your installation to carry out a quality check and make sure you're fully satisfied with the job we will also spend some time helping you get to grips with your new boiler and hot water controls. Using hot water will melt a lot of the oily, waxy components of conditioners and body oils if using a lot of coconut oil or other waxy products in your routine, be sure to let the hot water run for a while to melt it away. Safety considerations for hydro-mechanical drain cleaners include the risk of injury from high-pressure water coming into contact with skin or delicate areas of the body (i.e., eyes, and face). Regulation of domestic hot water temperature. Blockages are often caused by a build-up of silt, sewage and general debris sometimes it’s a result of household objects shoved down the loo you wouldn’t believe the things we find – cutlery, children’s toys, toothbrushes, pets (yes really), money, jewellery – even a gun always remember that fat, oil and grease (fog) and nappies, wipes and sanitary products should never be flushed. Or simply a system boiler is an advanced version of a conventional boiler it works in a similar fashion by supplying the heating system directly and storing hot water in a cylinder, however, as it doesn’t require a water tank to provide pressure it is great for homes that require instant access to hot water from multiple taps it’s main benefit is that it frees up the space in your attic. Children expect to earn £1.5 million a year. California boiler has a fleet of 60 hp electric steam boilers for rent these packaged units are designed at 150 psig pressure, and run on 480v 3 phase they are rated for indoor use, and have zero emissions. The uft is htp’s medium mass high efficiency boiler this advanced modulating gas condensing boiler has a 316l stainless steel fire tube heat exchanger with up to a 96% afue rating it has a 10 to 1 turndown ratio and has ultra-low nox emissions, making the uft eco-friendly! To get the right size, type and make of boiler to heat your home you really need someone who knows their blast pipe from their check valve our friendly and reliable heating experts are just the ticket they’ll come to your home, for free, match you with the right boiler and leave you with a quote. A boiler is basically a water heater which can provide heating and hot water to your home they burn gas or oil to heat your water, and are the conventional method of providing residential and commercial premises with heating and hot water in the uk combi boilers are one of three main types of boiler widely used by homes and businesses. We offer an supply and installation service for both. Potterton, brooks house, coventry road, warwick, cv34 4ll. We all run into plumbing problems, almost always when we don’t expect them! if you have been caught by surprise by a blocked sink or a leaky tap then you need an emergency plumber service now! it’s always good to know that a professional local supplier has your back if you ever need their services! this is why pj bryer has over 25 plumbing specialists out on the road so that they can help you if you are in need of a plumbing expert! if you are in a desperate situation & require the services of an emergency plumber in bristol, then pj bryer heating & plumbing services have an exceptional emergency plumber call out time! Our user manual will take you through the process, describing how the tool itself works, explaining terms, from co. The southwest region includes the economic regions of london, windsor-sarnia and stratford-bruce peninsula as defined by statistics canada, including the cmas of london and windsor cities include chatham, ingersoll, sarnia, stratford, goderich and owen sound. Get the manpower, experience and quality you need. If you’re concerned about a persistent fault with your drains a cctv drain survey could be just what you need to see the problem in glorious technicolour it may be something completely surprising – in the past our cctv cameras have turned up tree roots, collapsed pipes or even the unlikeliest of blockages, such as lost mobile phones, children’s toys or other household objects. If you own your own home, are renting a home, or own a business, chances are you have had to hire a plumber plumbing problems are not uncommon, and while regular maintenance is suggested, most people are more reactive than proactive when it comes to their plumbing issues if you are like most people, not to worry, we know plumbing inside and out and can assist in katy, tx & w houston. Water hardness refers to calcium and magnesium content water qualifies as “soft” when it contains less than 75 mg of calcium carbonate per litre in 2015, calgary’s water supply ranged from 140 to 238 mg/l the value does vary seasonally (tending to be higher in the winter) and regionally (the north side bearspaw supply is generally softer than the south side glenmore reservoir) but all the values reported by the city of calgary are on the higher side of the scale. Our professionally trained installation crews, complemented by our friendly office staff and courteous service department, have installed and maintained thousands of systems over the last three decades we pride ourselves on our prompt service and for taking the extra time to ensure that our installations and service work are the. Combi boilers don’t need hot water cylinders, and so require less space in your home. It doesn't matter whether you've experienced a leaky toilet, a clogged kitchen sink, or a backed-up sewer line—roto-rooter knows how to handle it all with more than eight decades of experience as one of the leading plumbing companies in north america, we guarantee our work and back up our estimates, every time. Up to 30% saving is based on sedbuk figures when replacing g rated with a rated boiler. When a boiler packs in, it can be an extremely stressful time that’s why we’ve got two dedicated emergency numbers — one for repairs, one for replacements — to get you what you need as quickly as possible should you need your boiler replacing in an emergency we could get the job done in 24 hours in some locations. To use drain out bathroom in a regular household drain, simply remove the standing water from the drain and pour half a bottle of drain out bathroom in the drain allow product to work for 15 minutes, then flush drain with warm water. An older, less efficient boiler may be costing you more money to operate a newer, more energy-efficient model will typically save you money in the long run, if you are willing to make the investment. Find the best savings accounts and isas for you with which? money compare. Can give you peace of mind when buying a new house the mortgage company can insist on a specialist cctv drain survey as part of your mortgage offer we can provide a full cctv drain survey to identify and locate any defective drains and a full report including photographs this can save you money on expensive repairs once you move into your new home. Copyright 2018 stevenage borough council. We’re professional looking dudes and we keep your home clean when we’re in it! We give warranty for all services we provide our database of satisfied customers is continuously growing we have acomplished a significant number of successful installations and customers come back to us for the service we have gained their trust and loyalty at gfl, we now take more and more electrical and boiler installation projects, and our company continues to grow. Combination boilers themselves can be picked up for a great price and the fact you don’t need additional extras (like a tank or cylinder) brings the installation costs right down. The table below provides you an example of the. Once you have accepted the cost, it’s time to decide which. Add a touch of luxury to your bedroom with our quilted rose range. Save $300 on any new heating installation with auchinachie. This time we had a major issue with our sewage line related to roots was terrible but we called billy howe and mike came and did an incredible job not only he explained really well what was going on but he was careful and knowledgeable i was so relief that not only we trust in bh team but we were lucky that was mike coming to execute the service. People specialising as drainlayers typically earn a little less than plumbers and gasfitters. Silent and discreet, mini electric boilers are ideal for single-family homes and condominiums whether you need a hydronic system to heat your basement, garage or any other type of application, the compact mini is the intelligent choice for heating. Complete the form below to request a call and our experts will ring you right back. If you suspect a blockage in your drainage system or any damage in your drainage system’s structure, a drain cctv survey will be able to locate the source of the damage and let the surveyor know the extent of the damage from the cctv footage, they will be able to complete a drain survey to report what the damage is (if there is any damage), where the damage is and what will need to be done to fix and repair it a cctv drain survey service will also be able to let the drainage survey company know what materials are needed to repair the damage or replace the faulty parts. An extended 10-year warranty is available on worcester bosch and vaillant boilers the cost for this is £150 manufacturer terms and conditions apply, including the requirement for a gas safe registered engineer to service your boiler annually. We've made it easy for you to buy great value home insurance compare our two levels of cover side by side when you get a quote. Advance service manual dec 2017.pdf. Combi boilers (short for “combination boiler”) have fast become arguably the most popular boiler and heating system in the uk accounting for over 70% of all new installations in the past couple of years and replacing the more conventional hot water tank and system boiler set-ups. Statistics retrieved from the u.s bureau of labor statistics. Plumbing emergencies happen whether an unforeseen plumbing emergency comes about during the day or in the late hours of the night, we are here for you don’t stress or panic explore best plumber nj near me – give us a call! expert emergency repair technicians are available from 7:00 am – 10:00 pm, 365 days a year! They can come in various shapes and sizes, but in all electric boilers, you’ll see water running through the system to be heated by a heating element – similar to the way a kettle works. The team at weathermakers is dedicated to creating long-term relationships with our clients by providing quality without compromise our professional boiler technicians are more than happy to provide you with the answers to all of your heating questions and concerns. James foy plumbing ltd, plumbers, liverpool. We take pride in stating that we have a track record of 100% satisfied customers, backed by the positive reviews and recommendations that we have received. Seismic straps should be installed approximately 6 inches from the top of the water heater and 18 inches from the bottom locate the wall studs closest to the strap measurement and drill pilot holes. We are fully insured heating and cooling professionals! Installation and service guides for contractors (pro login required). Craig went above and beyond my expectation in every way he responded to thumbtack request in < 5 min he took time to listen/explain the issue and suggested replacing the water heater was better option unlike big plumber who charge $100 just to evaluate the issue, craig quoted me the price over the phone and got the work done in next 24 hours i had some concern/question once the installation was done and called me at 8:00pm he drove in right away and addressed my concern (not something that you would expect from big plumbing companies) and best of all, craig's quote was less than half of other big plumbing companies totally recommend him for any plumbing needs. Rather than just going out and. Since fitting the new boiler and controls, her fuel bills have gone now an incredible 48%! The number one concern in most emergency situations is speed you need the emergency plumber to arrive on time, in order to carry out the required work as soon as possible. Follow us on social media to keep up to date with everything thatâ€™s happening... We can also provide services to. We maintain over 300,000 roadside drains, also known as gullies, on the roads as there are so many, we can't service them all regularly very often when we respond to a call out for a blocked drain on the road, we find that the grate is just covered by wet leaves or grass, which act like a plug and stops the water flowing down it freely. Kwikflow’s uses advanced cctv drain survey technology as the most cost-effective way to inspect drains and sewers with our high-tech remote-controlled specialist camera equipment, the kwikflow team can quickly and accurately identify the cause of any drain problems. Vented, heat pump or condenser? we explain the different types of tumble dryer, with expert advice on choosing the right model for you. We have invested in the latest camera equipment to provide the best possible recordable image & the reporting software. Bill fenwick plumbing in jacksonville, fl knows that a plumbing emergency can occur anytime and without warning there’s nothing worse than waking up to a burst pipe in the middle of the night or a freezing cold shower on your way to work it’s no secret your home’s system doesn’t run on a 9 to 5 schedule therefore, neither does our service team we’re available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to solve your problems that require immediate attention. As of 2010 all domestic boiler installations should be at least 88% efficient, which means that only a-rated boilers and b-rated boilers can be installed in private properties. I currently have a baxi boiler and have full cover with them with is £20 a month (soon to be cancelled) when i only needed a service once a year it was fine but now it keeps having faults they are not a good company to deal with i had another plumber come and look at it as it keeps breaking down and he revealed they have done bad repair work, duck taping bits together instead of putting new parts in etc wouldn't trust the company now as work seems shocking and takes them 4 days for them to come out to repair the boiler even when you got a plan avoid!!!! Monitron is built with a high quality, one piece, cast-iron heat exchanger internal baffles improve heat transfer by directing water flow along the full length of each heating element a built-in air eliminator improves performance monitron electric boilers are so reliable, they are backed by a lifetime limited warranty.. Replacing or relocating radiators. For trade and professional use only sulphuric acid based product (with inhibitor) specially designed to rapidly clear blockages in outside drains, pipes and toilets only (industrial strength for trade and professional use, wear protective clothing). A 95% afue wall–mounted boiler available in seven sizes to meet the heating demands of any size home. In many cases your drains are covered by your home insurance, if your insurance company accepts liability you are able to have the drain repaired and the survey fee reimbursed. When collecting your order, you will need to bring photographic id if you pay with paypal, your order cannot be collected by a third party. So, 99% of the time, there’s no need to turn off the mains water. New england way, warwick, ri 02886. Technicians average 11 years experience. Coming at a price of $1,300, combination boilers are suited for apartments and studios they work by instantaneously heating hot water that is coming from the main supply this means that there is no delay in hot water, but the supply tends to be limited due to the lack of a storage tank. Choosing the best boiler for your home can be a challenge but hopefully this article narrows down your focus a little bit each boiler brand offers boiler sizing calculator to help you choose the correct boiler size for your needs it is often unnecessary to select a boiler with a bigger heat output than you need, unless you are planning on extending your home. If you have an emergency plumbing need, simply call us for fast affordable plumbing solutions. Viscous and heavy, so it goes directly to the blockage. With baxi, you can guarantee there is a boiler to suit your needs baxi boilers cater for bungalows, flats, small and large properties you can be safe in the knowledge that hollands will offer the most energy efficient heating system for your home along-side a safe and reliable service when installing your baxi boiler you can also be assured that baxi boilers will provide you with an economically and environmentally friendly solution to your heating system and hot water demands. Boilers are an energy efficient and environmentally friendly mode of heating they work by cycling cold water through a series of heated pipes before distributing it throughout your home as either hot water or steam. The boiler repair team at schwartz boiler understands that the boiler is the heart of a ship or industrial factory, and repairing it requires highly skilled professionals the boiler repair service team at schwartz boiler has been providing repair services for 115 years our team of qualified boilermakers follow osha safety standards and all jurisdictional codes during their performance of work. My denver plumber understands that you have options when choosing a plumber and we know you'll be happy when choosing my denver plumber - for all of your plumbing needs. Iso 9001 certification -quality management. Installed a new garbage disposal for us the technician was very knowledgeable and friendly wouldn't hesitate to call asap again. If the kitchen sponge smells, that's proof that it's harboring bacteria place a wet sponge into the microwave for a minute and a half to kill bugs, or run it through the dishwasher (and replace it regularly). Smart ways to prevent hair clogs in the shower. In the event of a fault, the status signal for the. If your drain is blocked you will usually know because your waste will stop going away when you flush the toilet, or gullies outside will overflow there will also probably be a smell. We had a sudden and serious issue with an inflow of raw sewage into our property. This expert guide explains the different types of hedge trimmer, plus how much you need to spend. We have gas warm air ch in a detached 3 bed, two recap, conservatory, small bathroom, large porch, with toilet, utility area kitchen diner house is unusual in that it looks like a bungalow from front and two story house from back the current boiler was installed for warm air heating only when built 1972 and still going strong, however, parts no longer available cost just £13 month it is efficient but fails to warm main lounge and one bedroom on the ground floor water is via electric tank fed from tank in loft hob is gas and gas fire not used in lounge house is fully insulated brick cavity walls filled and some 10″ insulation in loft with large inside roof also insulated with 6″ insulation house is fully double glazed.